The TCP / IP protocol suite is the most flexible transport protocol available and allows computers around the world, running completely different operating systems, to communicate with each other. TCP / IP is the abbreviation Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol .
His development began in the 1960s as a project funded by the US government. Initially ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) created the TCP / IP protocol to interconnect military networks, but provided free protocols to government agencies and universities.
As the name expresses, the TCP / IP protocol consists of two major components:
- Transmission Control Protocol (UDP) - User Datagram Protocol (TCP) protocols. They receive the data from the application programs, divide them into fragments (data packets), add the destination address and transmit the next level packages,
- The Internet Protocol (IP) includes the IP datagram package, to which it adds a header, decides the route that the package must follow, then directly or through a gateway sends the package
The TCP / IP family of protocols contain a set of other protocols to physically perform the data transmission. More important, however, are application protocols, which use the other services (transport, network) to transfer data between network nodes. The most important are domain name protocol (DOMAIN), file transfer (FTP), telnet (TELNET), e-mail (e-mail), routing (RIP) WWW - The Internet Development Engine